Demand-response infrastructure for houses.
- Dramatic growth of energy demand.
- Energy security requirement.
- Increased use of renewable energies for electricity generation.
- Uncertain and intermittent nature of renewable energy.
- Balance between the supply and demand sides.
- Imbalance: low efficiency, energy waste, blackout, etc.
- Grid interconnection into regional, national, or continent wide networks.
- Large energy storage systems integration.
- Energy demand side reduction:
- Energy efficiency of electric loads improvement.
- Flexible electric loads---demand-response.
- Residential sector: around 30–40% of global consumption.
- Contribution to seasonal and daily peak demand.
- Electrical power grid is over-dimensioned.
- Utility companies generation increase.
“Changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006)